Theresa May is to outline a law forcing firms to hand details to police identifying who was using a computer or mobile phone at a particular time.
The home secretary predicts this new measure will improve national security.
Campaigners have warned that it could see the revival of the so-called "Snoopers charter".
The home office says the new measures will help police and security services identify cyber bullies and hackers, organised criminals and terror suspects.
The proposals, due to come before the MPs on Wednesday, would help police identify suspects via a computer or mobile device's individual internet protocol address.
The Home Office said Internet service providers currently have no business reason for holding data displaying which IP address was allocated to a device at a given time - so it is not always possible for police and security services to match individuals to internet use.
Theresa May said: ""This is a step but it doesn't go all the way to ensuring that we can identify all the people we will need to."
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